Publications and dissemination

Please browse I-REDD+ publications according to three categories:

Peer-reviewed articles
Policy briefs
Other publication

Peer-reviewed articles


Broegaard RB, Vongvisouk T, Mertz O (2017): Contradictory Land Use Plans and Policies in Laos: Tenure Security and the Threat of Exclusion. World Development 89: 170-183. 

Bruun TB, de Neergaard A, Burup ML, Hepp CM, Larsen MN, Abel C, Aumtong S, Magid J, Mertz O (2017): Intensification of Upland Agriculture in Thailand: Development or Degradation? Land Degradation & Development 28(1): 83–94. 

He J, Sikor T. (2017) Looking beyond tenure in China’s collective forest Tenure Reform: insights from Yunnan Province, Southwest China. International Forestry Review 19(1) 29-41.

Sikor T, He J, Lestrelin G. (2017) Property Rights Regimes and Natural Resource: A Conceptual Analysis Revisted. World Development, 93:337-349



Pasgaard M, Mertz O (2016): Desirable qualities of REDD+ projects not considered in decisions of project locations. Environmental Research Letters 11(11): article no. 114014. 

Pasgaard M, Sun Z, Müller D, Mertz O (2016): Challenges and opportunities for REDD+: A reality check from perspectives of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Environmental Science & Policy 63:161–169. 

Vongvisouk T, Lestrelin G, Castella J-C, Mertz O, Broegaard RB, Thongmanivong S (2016): REDD+ on hold: Lessons from an emerging institutional setup in Laos. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 57(3): 393–405. 

Vongvisouk T, Broegaard RB, Mertz O, Thongmanivong S (2016): Rush for cash crops and forest protection: Neither land sparing nor land sharing. Land Use Policy, 55:182–192.


Ankersen J, Mertz O, Fensholt R, Castella J-C, Lestrelin G, Nguyen TD, Grogan K, Danielsen F, Brofeldt S, Rasmussen K (2015): Vietnam's forest transition in retrospect: demonstrating weaknesses in business-as-usual scenarios for REDD+.  Environmental Management 55: 1080–1092

Cavanagh C. (2015). Protected area governance, carbon offset forestry, and environmental (in)justice at Mount Elgon, Uganda. Policy report series. School of International Development. UEA. 

He J. (2015). Rights to Benefit from Forest? A Case Study of the Timber Harvest Quota System in Southwest China. Society and Natural Resources. DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2015.1062949 

He J, Rong Lang (2015). Limits of State-Led Programs of Payment for Ecosystem Services: Field Evidence from the Sloping Land Conversion Program in Southwest China." Human Ecology, DOI: 10.1007/s10745-015-9782-9 

He J, Sikor T (2015). Notions of justice in payments for ecosystem services: Insights from China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program in Yunnan Province. Land Use Policy. 43:207-216.

McNicoll IM, Berry NJ, Bruun TB, Hergoualc'h K, Mertz O, de Neergaard A, Ryan CM (2015). Development of allometric models for above and belowground biomass in swidden cultivation fallows of Northern Laos. Forest Ecology and Management 304: 104-116. 

Mertens CF, Bruun TB, Schmidt-Vogt D, de Neergaard A. (2015). Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Energy Policy 80: 112-121. 

Pham TT, Castella JC, Lestrelin G, Mertz O, Le DN, Moeliono M, Nguyen TQ, Vu HT, Nguyen TD (2015): Adapting Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) to Local Contexts in REDD+: Lessons from Three Experiments in Vietnam. Forests 6(7): 2405-2423

Saito-Jensen M, Sikor T, Kurniawan Y, Eilenberg M, Setyawan EP, Kustini SJ. (2015). Policy Options for Effective REDD+ Implementation in Indonesia: the Significance of Forest Tenure Reform. International Forestry Review 17(1): 86-97. 

Verburg PH, Crossman N, Ellis EC, Heinimann A, Hostert P, Mertz O, Nagendra H, Sikor T, Erb K-H, Golubiewski N, Grau R, Grove M, Konaté S, Meyfroidt P, Parker DC, Chowdhury RR, Shibata H, Thomson A, Zhen L (2015): Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system: A global land project perspective. Anthropocene, 12: 29-41.


Brofeldt S, Theilade I, Burgess ND, Danielsen F, Poulsen MK, Adrian T, Bang TN, Budiman A, Jensen J, Jensen AE, Kurniawan Y, Lægaard SBL, Mingxu Z, van Noordwijk M, Rahayu S, Rutishauser E, Schmidt-Vogt D, Warta Z, Widayati A. (2014). Community Monitoring of Carbon Stocks for REDD+:  Does Accuracy and Cost Change over Time? Forests 5(8):1834-1854.

Danielsen F, Jensen PM, Burgess ND, Altamirano R, Alviola PA, Andrianandrasana H, Brashares JS, Burton AC, Coronado I, Corpuz N, Enghoff M, Fjeldså J, Funder M, Holt S, Hübertz H, Jensen AE, Lewis R, Massao J, Mendoza MM, Ngaga Y, Pipper CB, Poulsen MK, Rueda RM, Sam M, Skielboe T, Sørensen M, Young R. (2014). A multi-country assessment of tropical resource monitoring by local communities. BioScience 64: 236–251.

Danielsen F, Jensen PM, Burgess ND, Coronado I, Holt S, Poulsen MK, Rueda RM, Skielboe T, Enghoff M, Hemmingsen LH, Sørensen M, Pirhofer-Walzl K. (2014). Testing focus groups as a tool for connecting indigenous and local knowledge on abundance of natural resources with science-based land management systems. Conservation Letters 7: 380–389.

Danielsen F,  Pirhofer-Walzl K, Adrian T, Kapijimpanga D, Burgess N, Jensen PM, Bonney R, et al. (2014). Linking public participation in scientific research to the indicators and needs of international environmental agreements. Conservation Letters 7: 12-24.

Fox J, Castella JC, Ziegler AD. (2014) Swidden, rubber and carbon: Can REDD+ work for people and the environment in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia? Global Environmental Change 29, 318–326. 

Frayer J, Müller D, Sun Z, Munroe DK, Xu J. (2014). Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China. Forests. 5(12): 3257-3273.

Freyer J, Sun Z, Müller D, Munroe DK, Xu J. (2014) Analyzing the drivers of tree planting in Yunnan, China, with Bayesian networks. Land Use Policy 36: 248–258.

He J. (2014) Governing forest restoration: Local case studies of sloping land conversion program in Southwest China. Forest Policy and Economics 46: 30-38

He J, Long R, Xu J. (2014). Local Dynamics Driving Forest Transitioninsights from upland villages in Southwest China. Forests 5(2):214-233.

Mascia MB, Pailler S, Thieme ML, Rowe A, Bottrill MC, Danielsen F, Geldmann J, Naidoo R, Pullin AS, Burgess ND. (2014). Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation. Biological Conservation 169: 258-267.

Müller B, Balbi S, Buchmann CM, de Sousa L, Dressler G, Groeneveld J, … Sun Z, Taillandier P, Weise H. (2014). Standardized and transparent model descriptions for agent-based models : Current status and prospects. Environmental Modelling & Software 55: 156-163.

Müller D, Munroe DK. (2014). Current and future challenges in land-use science. Journal of Land Use Science 9(2): 133-142 

Müller D, Sun Z, Vongvisouk T, Pflugmacher D, Xu J, Mertz O. (2014). Regime shifts limit the predictability of land-system change.  Global Environmental Change 28, 75-83

Schroeder, H., T. Sikor, C. Mc Dermott, eds. (2014) Beyond Carbon: Enabling Justice and Equity in REDD+ Across Levels of Governance. Special issue of Ecology and Society. 

Sun Z, Müller D. (2014). Understanding Regime Shift in Land Systems with System Dynamics. In Seventh International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs), eds. D. P. Ames, N. W. T. Quinn & A. E. Rizzoli. San Diego, California, US. 

Vongvisouk T, Mertz O, Thongmanivong S, Heinimann A, Phanvilay K. (2014) Shifting cultivation stability and change: Contrasting pathways of land use and livelihood change in Laos. Applied Geography 46: 1-10. 



Belcher B, Bastide F, Castella JC, Boissière M (2013). Development of a village-level livelihood monitoring tool: A case-study in Viengkham District, Lao PDR. International Forestry Review 15(1), 48-59.

Bourgoin J, Castella JC, Hett C, Lestrelin G, Heinimann A (2013). Engaging local communities in low emissions land use planning: a case study in Laos. Ecology and Society 18 (2): 9.

Castella J-C, Lestrelin G, Hett C, Bourgoin J, Fitriana YR, Heinimann A, Pfund J-L (2013). Effects of Landscape Segregation on Livelihood Vulnerability: Moving From Extensive Shifting Cultivation to Rotational Agriculture and Natural Forests in Northern Laos. Human Ecology 41: 63-76.

Danielsen F, Parish F. (2013). Environment: Curb clearance for oil-palm plantations. Nature 500, 276.

Danielsen F, Adrian T, Brofeldt S, van Noordwijk M, Poulsen MK, Rahayu S, Rutishauser E, Theilade I, Widayati A, The An N, Nguyen Bang T, Budiman A, Enghoff M, Jensen AE, Kurniawan Y, Li Q, Mingxu Z, Schmidt-Vogt D, Prixa S, Vongvisouk T, Warta Z, Burgess N (2013). Community monitoring for REDD+: international promises and field realities. Ecology and Society 18(3): 41.

Erb K-H, Haberl H, Jepsen MR, Kuemmerle T, Lindner M, Müller D, Verburg PH, Reenberg A. 2013. A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5(5): 464-470

Fox J, Castella JC, Ziegler AD (2013). Swidden, rubber and carbon: Can REDD+ work for people and the environment in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia? Global Environmental Change, available online.

Fox J., Castella J.C. (2013) Expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in mainland Southeast Asia: what are the prospects for smallholders? Journal of Peasant Studies, 40(1): 155-170.

Funder M, Danielsen F, Ngaga Y, Nielsen MR, Poulsen MK. (2013). Reshaping conservation: The social dynamics of participatory monitoring in Tanzania's community-managed forests. Conservation and Society 11: 218–232.

Grogan, K., & Fensholt, R. (2013). Exploring Patterns and Effects of Aerosol Quantity Flag Anomalies in MODIS Surface Reflectance Products in the Tropics. Remote Sensing 5: 3495-3515.

Heinimann A, Hett C, Hurni K, Messerli P, Epprecht M, Jørgensen L, Breu T (2013). Socio-Economic Perspectives on Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in Northern Laos. Human Ecology 41: 51-62.

Hurni K, Hett C, Heinimann A, Messerli P, Wiesmann U (2013). Dynamics of Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in Northern Lao PDR Between 2000 and 2009 Based on an Analysis of MODIS Time Series and Landsat Images. Human Ecology 41: 21-36.

Kuemmerle T, Erb K-H, Meyfroidt P, Müller D, Verburg PH, Estel S, Haberl H, Hostert P, Jepsen, MR, Kastner T, Levers C, Lindner M, Plutzar C, Verkerk PJ, van der Zanden EH, Reenberg A. 2013. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5(5): 484-493.

Lestrelin G, Castella JC, Fox J (2013). Forest transitions in Southeast Asia: Synergies and shortcomings in land-change science and political ecology. Pp 48-65 in: C. Braanstrom and J. Vadjunec (eds.) Land-Change Science and Political Ecology for Sustainability. Synergies and Divergences, Earthscan, London.

Müller D, Suess S, Hoffmann AA, Buchholz G (2013). The Value of Satellite-Based Active Fire Data for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of REDD+ in the Lao PDR. Human Ecology 41: 7-20.

Rutishauser E, Noor’an F, Laumonier Y, Halperin J, Rufi’ie, Hergoualc’h K, Verchot L (2013). Generic allometric models including height best estimate forest biomass and carbon stocks in Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management 307: 219–225.

Senf C, Pflugmacher D, van der Linden S, Hostert P (2013). Mapping Rubber Plantations and Natural Forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China) Using Multi-Spectral Phenological Metrics from MODIS Time Series. Remote Sensing 5(6): 2795-2812.

Sikor T (2013). REDD+: Justice Effects of Technical Design. Pp 46-68 in Sikor T (ed.) The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services. London: Routledge.

Sikor T, Auld G, Bebbington AJ, Benjaminsen TA, Gentry BS, Hunsberger C, Izac A-M, Margulis ME, Plieninger T, Schroeder H, Upton C (2013). Global land governance: from territory to flow? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5: 522–527.

Slik JWF, Paoli G, McGuire K, … Theilade I, ..., et al. (2013). Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22(12): 1261–1271.

Sun Z, Müller D. (2013). A framework for modeling payments for ecosystem services with agent-based models, Bayesian belief networks and opinion dynamics models. Environmental Modelling & Software 45(0) 15-28.

Verburg PH, Erb K-H, Mertz O, Espindola G (2013). Land System Science: between global challenges and local realities. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5: 433-437.

Verburg PH, Mertz O, Erb K-H, Haberl H, Wu W (2013). Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5: 494-502.

Yuen JQ, Ziegler AD, Webb EL, Ryan CM. 2013. Uncertainty in below-ground carbon biomass for major land covers in Southeast Asia. Forest Ecology and Management, 310, 915–926.



Gardner TA, Burgess ND, Aguilar-Amuchastegui N, Barlow J, Berenguer E, Clements T, Danielsen F, Ferreira J, Foden W, Kapos V, Khan SM, Lees AC, Parry L, Roman-Cuesta RM, Schmitt CB, Strange N, Theilade I, Vieira ICG (2012).  A framework for integrating biodiversity concerns into national REDD+ programmes. Biological Conservation 154:61-71.

Hett C, Castella J-C, Heinimann A, Messerli P, Pfund JL (2011). A landscape mosaic approach for characterizing swidden systems from a REDD+ perspective. Applied Geography 32(2):608-618.  

Hett C, Heinimann A, Epprecht M, Messerli P, Hurni K (2012). Carbon pools and poverty peaks in Lao PDR: spatial data informs policymaking for REDD+ at the national level. Mountain Research and Development 32(4):390-399. 

Mertz O, Müller D, Sikor T, Hett C, Heinimann A, Castella J-C, Lestrelin G, Ryan C, Reay D, Schmidt-Vogt D, Danielsen F, Theilade I, van Noordwijk M, Verchot LV, Burgess N, Berry N, Pham T, Messerli P, Xu J, Fensholt R, Hostert P, Pflugmacher D, Bruun TB, de Neergaard A, Dons K, Dewi S, Rutishauser E, Sun Z (2012). The forgotten D: challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 112(1): 63-76.

Ryan CM, Hill T, Woollen E, Ghee C, Mitchard E, Cassells G, Grace J, Woodhouse IH,  Williams M 2011. Quantifying small-scale deforestation and forest degradation in African woodlands using radar imagery. Global Change Biology 18(1), 243-257.  

Sun Z, Müller D (2012) Participatory Bayesian networks reveal site-specific causes of land-use trajectories in Southeast Asia. IN R. Seppelt, AA Voinov, S Lange & D Bankamp (Eds.) Managing Resources of a Limited Planet. Leipzig, Germany, 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Sixth Biennial Meeting, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs).

Sun Z, Müller D (2012) A framework for modeling payments for ecosystem services with agent-based models, Bayesian belief networks and opinion dynamics models. Environmental Modelling & Software.  


Policy briefs

I-REDD+ (2014). Lessons for REDD+ from complex mosaic landscapes. I-REDD+ Policy Brief no. 4

I-REDD+ (2014). Lessons for REDD+ from complex mosaic landscapes. I-REDD+ Policy Brief no. 4 (Lao version)

I-REDD+ (2014). Four policy briefs on Benefit Distribution Mechanisms for Payment for Ecosystem Services in China, Indonesia, Laos and Vietnam. English and national language versions

Brofeldt S, Lægaard SBL, Keldsen JK, Theilade I, Adrian T (2014). Communities can monitor forest carbon 'as well as experts'. Copenhagen Centre for Development Research Policy Briefs no. 2. Copenhagen Centre for Development Research.

I-REDD+ (2013). Opportunities for REDD+ in degraded forests and complex landscapes. I-REDD+ Policy Brief no. 3 

I-REDD+ (2012). Understanding, measuring and governing changes in forest carbon stocks in complex landscapes. I-REDD+ Policy Brief no. 2.

I-REDD+ (2011). The forgotten D: challenges of addressing forest degradation in REDD+. IREDD+ Policy Brief no. 1.

ICRAF (2013). Local Mitigation Actions Supporting the Low Emission Development Plan in Kutai Barat District, Indonesia – Initial Process. Brief No. 35. World Agroforestry Centre, Bogor, Indonesia.

Sikor T. (2013). REDD+: Justice effects of technical design. DEV Research Briefings, International Development, University of East Anglia, UK.

Sikor T. and Nguyen, Q.T. (2012). REDD+ safeguards for Vietnam: Key Issues and the Way Forward. Bangkok, RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests


Other publications

Mertz O, Pasgaard M, Müller D, Brockhaus M, Verchot LV, Sun Z, Sikor T, van Noordwijk M, Hett C, Castella JC, Bruun TB, Pflugmacher D, Danielsen F. (2015). Lessons for REDD+ from complex mosaic landscapes. Newsletter of the Global Land Project 11: 34-35. 

Thongmanivong S, Phanvilay K, Vongvisouk T (2013). How Laos is moving forward with REDD+ schemes. International Journal of Rural Law and Policy, 2013 Special Edition on REDD+ and the legal regime of mangroves, peatlands and other wetlands: ASEAN and the world. Pp 1-4.

Pham, T.T., Brockhaus, M., Wong, G., Dung, L.N., Tjajadi, J.S., Loft, L., Luttrell C. and Assembe Mvondo, S. (2013). Approaches to benefit sharing. A preliminary comparative analysis of 13 REDD+ countries. Working Paper 108.CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Blog with interview on the I-REDD+ work on forest degradation (2013)

Danielsen, F., Nørgaard, M.M. (2012). Danmarks fodaftryk på biodiversiteten i udlandet. Pg. 81-86 in Meltofte, H. (Ed.), Danmarks natur frem mod 2020. Om at stoppe tabet af biologisk mangfoldighed (Det Grønne Kontaktudvalg, Danmarks Naturfredningsforening, Copenhagen, Denmark) (in Danish). [The global, environmental ‘foot print’ of Denmark].

Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Enghoff, M. (2012). From global to local in REDD+ MRV: Linking community and government approaches. Pg. 273-274 in Angelsen, A. (Ed.), Analysing REDD+ challenges and choices (CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia).

Danielsen, F., Theilade, I. (2011) Potential fit of community-level monitoring of biodiversity and socio-economic outcomes with national REDD+ programmes. Input paper no. 3 for the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility workshop ¨Linking community monitoring to national REDD+ MRV¨ 12-14 September 2011, Mexico City (CIGA-UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico).

Hett C. (2012). A spatial assessment of changes in land use and carbon stocks in Laos: A contribution to policy and decision making for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PhD thesis, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Johana F, Suyanto, Widayati A, Zulkarnain MT, Müller D, Budiman A., 2013. Local Mitigation Actions Supporting the Low Emission Development Plan in Kutai Barat District, Indonesia – Initial Process. World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF): Bogor, Indonesia, 1-6.

Lestrelin G, Trockenbrodt M, Phanvilay K, Thongmanivong S, Vongvisouk T, Pham TT and Castella J-C. (2013). The context of REDD+ in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Drivers, agents and institutions. Occasional Paper 92. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

Pham TT, Brockhaus M, Wong G, Dung LN, Tjajadi JS, Loft L, Luttrell C, Assembe Mvondo S. (2013) Approaches to benefit sharing: A preliminary comparative analysis of 13 REDD+ countries. CIFOR Working Paper 108. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 

Rahayu, S., Poulsen, M.K., Kurniawan, Y., Hultera (2011). Monitoring Cadangan Karbon oleh Masyarakat: Uji Coba di Propinsi Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia dan Nghe An, Vietnam. ICRAF Newsletter pg. 10-12 (in Indonesian). [Community Monitoring of Carbon Reserves: Testing in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, and Nghe An, Vietnam].

By Cope Media